Aerial photograph of the studied glacial foreland in 2016.
Aerial photograph of the studied glacial foreland in 2016.
Locations of the 330 surveyed points. White crosses are points surveyed on the recently deglaciated area, while yellow crosses are control points beyond the LIA glacial maximum.
Locations of the 330 surveyed points. White crosses are points surveyed on the recently deglaciated area, while yellow crosses are control points beyond the LIA glacial maximum.
Soil sampling locations across the foreland.
Soil sampling locations across the foreland.
Locations of temperature sensors across the foreland.
Locations of temperature sensors across the foreland.
At each point, a 2x2m quadrat was surveyed.
At each point, a 2x2m quadrat was surveyed.
Aerial view of the study area in July 2016. The yellow grid shows the layout of the 144 zones surveyed. The white shaded area shows the glacial retreat between 1995 and 2016.
Aerial view of the study area in July 2016. The yellow grid shows the layout of the 144 zones surveyed. The white shaded area shows the glacial retreat between 1995 and 2016.
Survey design. The study area extends 300 m from the 1995 glacial margin, and is divided into 144 zones. Six 50x50cm small quadrats were chosen randomly within each zone. 
Survey design. The study area extends 300 m from the 1995 glacial margin, and is divided into 144 zones. Six 50x50cm small quadrats were chosen randomly within each zone. 
Aerial photograph of the studied glacial foreland in 2016.
Aerial photograph of the studied glacial foreland in 2016.
Locations of the 330 surveyed points. White crosses are points surveyed on the recently deglaciated area, while yellow crosses are control points beyond the LIA glacial maximum.
Locations of the 330 surveyed points. White crosses are points surveyed on the recently deglaciated area, while yellow crosses are control points beyond the LIA glacial maximum.
Soil sampling locations across the foreland.
Soil sampling locations across the foreland.
Locations of temperature sensors across the foreland.
Locations of temperature sensors across the foreland.
At each point, a 2x2m quadrat was surveyed.
At each point, a 2x2m quadrat was surveyed.
Aerial view of the study area in July 2016. The yellow grid shows the layout of the 144 zones surveyed. The white shaded area shows the glacial retreat between 1995 and 2016.
Aerial view of the study area in July 2016. The yellow grid shows the layout of the 144 zones surveyed. The white shaded area shows the glacial retreat between 1995 and 2016.
Survey design. The study area extends 300 m from the 1995 glacial margin, and is divided into 144 zones. Six 50x50cm small quadrats were chosen randomly within each zone. 
Survey design. The study area extends 300 m from the 1995 glacial margin, and is divided into 144 zones. Six 50x50cm small quadrats were chosen randomly within each zone. 
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